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Sahel, le risque d’une guerre civile généralisée

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In the Sahel, where an armed conflict has been ongoing since 2012, today, the greatest risk is  »the war of each against all ». The widespread civil war situation evoked by Thomas Hobbes in the 17th century looms over the Sahel and  already exists in Libya.

The statement about Turkish troops, or financed by Ankara, joining on Libyan soil those supported by other Middle Eastern states, leads to the anarchy described by Hobbes. It may be a cause for concern, but it cannot surprise the Sahel countries, which, together with their French ally, should meet on Monday 13 January in Pau, France.

With these new issues, which are highly more strategic than those of the Sahel – as they are related to the Mediterranean, Middle East issues, oil and East/West rivalry – the Sahel risks becoming just one item of the Annexes of a full international agenda. Complaining about it is not a solution. Addressing it with lucidity may offer the start of a response.

‘’The enemy of a good plan is a perfect plan’’.

That was already noted by the more pragmatic than perfectionist von Clausewitz.  And the following are few observations before a good plan.

First, it is important to note that with a protracted crisis, mistrust becomes the dominant factor and with it fear. Each side, armed or not, is fearful of its adversary even if it were much weaker. Second, the longer a conflict lasts – like those in Libya and the Sahel – and the more it becomes much further entrenched, generating the causes of its self-financing and its geographical expansion. It becomes a lucrative activity for all and not just the rebels. Turning into a business, it provides financial income and political prestige to each party. It therefore tends to perpetuate itself.

Moreover, and for number reasons – political sensitivities, personality, etc. – the proliferation of mediators tends to aggravate the severity of a conflict and thus often contribute, unintentionally or not, to deviate its prospects of a final settlement. Coordinating the approaches and actions of these mediators is easier said than done. Harmonizing their policies, or more modestly their approaches under the leadership of a UN special envoy, remains the ideal. An ideal often torpedoed by demagoguery or amateurism, perversion or naivety.

Precisely, because of these contradictions and inconsistencies, which are often difficult to manage, the conflict extends to geographical regions not yet affected.  It then creates more difficulties for the official authorities and their allies while ensuring more prestigeto rebellions. Opportunistic activities – trafficking in cigarettes, drugs, migrants, currency transfers, thrive and fuel all parties to the conflict. In many types of these crises, including the Sahel one, armed confrontation in the day does not exclude, in the evening, lucrative cooperation between combatants or their representatives.

Between Libya and the Sahel, all sorts of communications have been ongoing since the Gaddafi regime. In the Sahel and elsewhere, many pretend to ignore and even hide this unhealthy reality. Now, with Turkey’s entry into Libya, thus joining two or three other Middle East countries, the internationalization of  »the war of each against all » is thus confirmed.

With the Russia-Africa summit in Sochi last October, there are emerging similarities to the cold war. The Nato’s December 2019 summit in London had a word on the Sahel that may add to those cold war similarities.

Is this diplomatic context an opportunity for the Sahel and France to speed up the resolution of the crisis? Or is it a disaster with new refugees, more weapons and much more other collateral damage?

The ‘lizard does climb on a smooth wall’.

Even though some of its leaders have a very good knowledge of the reality of the crisis and its regional and international issues, the Sahel remains indigent diplomatically and militarily. In an era of results-seeking, complaining is no longer enough and victimization – providing no solution – weakens as it slows down initiatives and the dynamics of effort.

To lock one country in these ideological shackles by ignoring 60 years of independence and therefore of political responsibility – even at a minimum –  does not help either. That political fashion undermines national cohesion and the morale of armies where it sows doubts through the ranks and files. Worse, it reinvigorates rebellions. On the contrary, more rigorism in the management of our countries and lesser dogmatism, fast spread by social networks, reinforce the ingredients of success.

The powerful development of these social networks in the Sahel, including Fakenews, affects, and it is known, internal policies but also weakens, and that is lesser known, military political alliances. In regions where freedom of information is recent and rumours are highly appreciated, this new dimension of communication has devastating effects on states’ management particularly in times of conflict. Political and military leaders would be very unwise to ignore this context.

To this end, and for greater efficiency, external assistance – diplomatic and military – should support only policies aimed at greater national cohesion. No military policy can succeed if the internal front is cracked.  »The lizard does not climb on a smooth wall » as often told to me by the late President Eyadema of Tog. Softening the domestic political scene is an ingredient against armed incursions.

The ultimate objective is to provide lasting reassurance to regions with particularisms and also to those political, economic and social interest groups. These are obligatory steps in times of war. The widening and consolidation of the political and social base of governments, as initiated by President Ould Ghazwani in Mauritania, is to be promoted urgently.

It should be proclaimed and supported by the heads of state gathering at the closed-door Pau Summit. With realism and courage, the settlement of the Malian and Burkinabe crises, priorities of the Sahel, is possible. It should hasten the resolution of conflicts in the Sahel, leaving Libya to the ‘’complicated Middle East’’ and the enormous issues associated to it.

Doing otherwise is to let the Pau summit prove Hobbes right and  »the war of each against all… when life becomes nasty, brutish and short ».

By Ahmedou Ould Abdallah, president centre4s

 

Rapport d’activités de l’association A.H.M.E. (Association des Haratine de Mauritanie en Europe)

Le 01/01/2020 – A.H.M.E (Association des Haratine de Mauritanie en Europe)

Bonjour à tous nos lecteurs et internautes,

En ce début d’année 2020, l’association A.H.M.E. (Association des Haratine de Mauritanie en Europe) réaffirme son engagement dans la lutte contre deux fléaux majeurs en Mauritanie : l’esclavage et le racisme. En effet, 2019 a été une année riche en évènements : entre présence sur le terrain, publication d’un nouveau livre en version arabe et couverture médiatique. La diversité de nos actions nous a permis d’attirer l’attention d’un média français, en l’occurrence Le Point Afrique, pour expliquer au monde ce qui se produit en Mauritanie.

De plus, nous n’oublierons pas vos commentaires de soutien et ne feront que nourrir notre détermination et notre volonté de lutte à l’avenir.

Nous vous proposons ainsi de revenir, par le biais de ce rapport d’activité succinct, sur cette année 2019, en vous retraçant les moments et sorties marquants de l’association A.H.M.E.

  1. L’association AHME était présente et invitée aux festivités de Clichy-sous-Bois pour le 10 mai, journée commémorative de l’abolition de l’esclavage en France. Retrouvez les photos et vidéos de l’évènement :
    Commémoration de l’abolition de l’esclavage – 10 mai 2019 à Clichy-sous-bois
  2. Après nos versions papiers de pétition pour l’abolition de l’esclavage et du racisme en Mauritanie, A.H.M.E. a décidé de lancer une pétition sur internet afin d’appuyer au mieux notre combat et vous faciliter vos signatures dans le cadre de cette lutte : Pétition pour l’abolition de l’esclavage et du racisme en Mauritanie
  3. Le président Mohamed Yahya OULD CIRE s’est prêté à deux interviews avec la journaliste Viviane Forson très largement relayées sur les réseaux sociaux. L’une est une vidéo : Interview de Mohamed Yahya OULD CIRÉ au journal Le Point Afrique  : Interview de Mohamed Yahya OULD CIRÉ au journal Le Point Afrique  La seconde est une version écrite que vous trouverez sur le site LePointAfrique.fr : « La question des Haratines est la plus brûlante en Mauritanie »
  4. L’an dernier, l’association a entrepris un projet de traduction du livre « La Mauritanie : entre esclavage et le racisme » en arabe. L’objectif principal était de faire connaître notre cause au-delà des frontières européennes, à savoir dans le monde arabo-musulman et en particulier en Mauritanie où l’arabe est la langue nationale. C’est grâce au travail sérieux et régulier du traducteur mauritanien Mohamed Yeslem Ould El Maouloud que la version arabe du livre a été publiée à l’Harmattan en avril dernier : La Mauritanie entre l’esclavage et le racisme par Mohamed Yahya Ould CIRE traduit en arabe
  5. Comme chaque année, A.H.M.E. a tenu un stand durant la fête des associations de Clichy-sous-Bois qui a eu lieu le 8 septembre 2019. L’association a exposé des pancartes, les exemplaires du « Cri du hartani », la thèse, le dernier livre « Mauritanie : entre l’esclavage et le racisme » ainsi que sa traduction récente en arabe, sans oublier les pétitions écrites. Durant cette journée des associations, une conférence a été organisée afin de discuter de la traite atlantique, de la traite saharienne ainsi que l’esclavage foncier et traditionnel. Le président Mohamed Yahya Ould Ciré a pu s’exprimer sur ce sujet.
  6. Une journée de dédicace a été réalisée le 18 avril 2019 à l’Espace Culturel de l’enseigne E.Leclerc à Clichy-sous-Bois, par Mohamed Yahya OULD CIRE, auteur de la thèse « L’abolition de l’esclavage en Mauritanie et les difficultés de son application », soutenue en 2006 et publiée par l’ANRT (Atelier National de Reproduction des Thèses) en 2008. Aussi, auteur de la version française et arabe de « La Mauritanie, entre l’esclavage et le racisme », édition l’Harmattan.

 

Mohamed Yahya Ould Cire Président de A.H.M.E.
Journal le « Cri du hartani »
Site : www.haratine.com
Courriel : ahme@haratine.com

 

To the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Copies addressed to the religious institutions of the Islamic world.

Object: Denunciation and complaint against Mahamadou Touré.

 

We: The Anti-slavery Association of West Africa of the Community Soninké, with our partners bring to the awareness (knowledge?) of the Saudi authorities and theIslamic Ummah, the diffusion of preaching that authorizes slavery between Muslims in the name of the Sacred Koran. This preaching brings disrepute to the image of Islam in the world. All lies spread in the name of Allah, the Holy Koran and itsProphet Mohamed (PSL) is a blasphemy. The Koran, the universal book, appeals for peace, for the unity of mankind, to their mutual knowledge of each other and dignity for all.

 

In truth, the divine project for mankind has always been to establish justice and equality on earth in order that the fraternity among men was effective and becomes a reality, by the disappearance of discrimination and the ceasing of unmerited privileges. The believers, the Koran teaches us “can only be brothers”. In other words, they can only be brothers unless they cease to be believers. In another verse, an appeal is addressed to all humanity, in order to remind them of their common origin.

 

Allah says “Oh you the humans! We have created you as a male and a female. We have created you in peoples and tribes with the sole aim that you mutually know each other. The noblest among you, nearest to God, are the most pious among you. God is certainly Omniscient and All Knowing”. All of the philosophy of the revelation is summed up in this sublime verse. It refers quite definitively, to know each other and not to mutually dominate each other. To help each other and not to despoil each other. To mutually love each other, and not for one to consider themselves as privileged, and thus superior to others.

 

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the home of the highest saintly authority of all Muslims, we are deeply wounded by the preachings of this man, originally from the Republic of Mali, and of Soninké ethnicity, who for many years has resided in the holy land. This man, known by the name Mahamadou Touré, brings disreputeto the human dignity of numerous Muslims in the Soninké community that sits on the frontiers of a number of West African countries (Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia and Guinea).

 

Between 2000 and 2019, this preacher who has access to a large audience inside of the Soninké community has distributed a number of audio cassettes, legitimizing slavery as customary by ascendance between Muslims. This scandalous sin that instrumentalizes our holy religion by authorizingthese anti-Islamic practices, such as inter-African slavery organized by the forces of the Jahiliyya on the continent that are actively engaged in by outlaws and other traffickers in humans beings in this zone. His apologeticdiscourses’ on these inhuman practices were the cause of innumerable aggressions of every kind, practiced by these Soninké slavers on other people who have revolted against this unacceptable situation. We bring to your attention some images of these atrocities.

 

In accordance with your position of theological and moral responsibility for Islam in the world, we ask of you to undertake both judicial and administrative prosecution against this man, named Mahamadou Touré. We also bring to the attention of the Saudi authorities the case of this preacher of customary traditions in the holy land, because his fanaticized disciples commit grave crimes towards other people, considered in error by them as their recalcitrant slaves, even though they are Muslims.

 

The Prophet (may the prayer of Allah and his Salvation be upon him) has said “The Moslem is the brother of the Moslem, he is not unjust with him, he does not abandon him. And he who caresfor the needs of his brother, Allah will take care of his needs. He who comforts a Moslem of his difficulty, Allah will unburden of a worry among worries on the day of resurrection. And he who hides a defect of a believer, Allah will remember theirs on the day of resurrection”

 

By panel associations  :

ARMEPES-FRANCE,

RMFP

ASSEP

 SECTION UVDS-FRANCE

 IRA-FRANCE

ÉGALITÉ  SANS  FRONTIÈRES AND AHME

Pétition pour l’abolition de l’esclavage et du racisme en Mauritanie

Le 06/10/2019 – A.H.M.E. (Association des Haratine de Mauritanie en Europe) 

Chers internautes,

Nous vous remercions de l’intérêt que vous portez à la lutte contre l’esclavage en Mauritanie.

Dans le but d’éveiller les consciences et de sensibiliser toujours plus sur ce fléau, A.H.M.E a décidé de créer une pétition en ligne :

https://secure.avaaz.org/fr/community_petitions/Association_des_Haratine_de_Mauritanie_en_Europe__Abolir_lesclavage_et_lutter_contre_le_racisme_en_Mauritanie/

Nous comptons sur vous pour la signer, la partager sur Facebook, Twitter, par e-mail afin d’inviter le maximum de personnes à rejoindre la lutte.

Comme vous avez pu le constater, les choses bougent en Mauritanie. L’Initiative pour la résurgence du mouvement abolitionniste (IRA-Mauritanie) est la première force d’opposition à à la majorité présidentielle. Toutefois, encore beaucoup de nos frères haratine sont victimes d’esclavage. Ne les oublions pas !

Pour toucher un public plus large, en l’occurrence les arabisants, A.H.M.E. a publié un livre « La Mauritanie, entre l’esclavage et le racisme », en français et en arabe.

Ensemble pour éradiquer l’esclavage et lutter contre le racisme !

Président de l’association Mohamed Yahya Ould Ciré

The unspeakable truth about slavery in Mauritania

For all the government’s denials, slavery persists in Mauritania. In a rare insight into the lives of the tens of thousands of people affected, photojournalist Seif Kousmate spent a month photographing and interviewing current and former slaves. While there, he was arrested and imprisoned by police, who confiscated his memory cards, phone and laptop. Lire la suite

Le « Washinton Post » défend les blogueurs mauritaniens

Dans le Washington Post du 1er avril, Nasser Weddady, un activiste connu durant le printemps arabe pour son rôle sur les réseaux sociaux, dénonce l’emprisonnement de son frère par le régime mauritanien

Imagine that convicted U.S. investor and scammer Bernie Madoff, who ran America’s largest Ponzi scheme, was protected by the White House. Next imagine that the president was benefiting from the scam and protecting Madoff from prosecution. Lire la suite